# Source code for pyseaflux.gas_transfer_velocity

```
"""
Gas Transfer Velocity
---------------------
Modulates the magnitude of the flux between the atmosphere and the ocean.
"""
def _add_xarray_attrs(func):
"""A helper function to add attributes to xarray."""
import re
from functools import wraps
from xarray import DataArray
def get_refs(func):
"""gets the reference from the docs where the reference is formatted
as \nReferences: ..."""
found = re.findall("References:(.*)", func.__doc__, flags=re.DOTALL)
if any(found):
ref = " ".join([s.strip() for s in found[0].split("\n")]).strip()
return ref
else:
return ""
def get_code(func):
"""get the formulation of kw from the function code. Requires the line
to start with k = ..."""
import inspect
raw = "".join(inspect.getsource(func))
found = re.findall("(k = .*)", raw)
if any(found):
code = found[0]
return code
else:
return ""
@wraps(func)
def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
"""wrapper that adds the xarray metadata if input is xarray"""
out = func(*args, **kwargs)
if isinstance(out, DataArray):
# full reference based on function name. This is manually added
names = {
"k_Li86": "Liss and Merlivat (1986)",
"k_Wa92": "Wanninkhof (1992)",
"k_Wa99": "Wanninkhof and McGillis(1999)",
"k_Ni00": "Nightingale et al. (2000)",
"k_Mc01": "McGillis et al (2001)",
"k_Ho06": "Ho et al. (2006)",
"k_Sw07": "Sweeney et al. (2007)",
"k_Wa09": "Wanninkhof et al. (2009)",
"k_Wa14": "Wanninkhof et al. (2014)",
}
name = names[func.__name__]
out = out.assign_attrs(
units="cm/hr",
description=f"gas transfer velocity of CO2 in seawater using {name}",
reference=get_refs(func),
formulation=get_code(func),
)
return out
return wrapper
[docs]def schmidt_number(temp_C):
"""
Calculates the Schmidt number as defined by Jahne et al. (1987) and listed
in Wanninkhof (2014) Table 1.
Args:
temp_C (array): temperature in degrees C
Returns:
array: Schmidt number (dimensionless)
Examples:
>>> schmidt_number(20) # from Wanninkhof (2014)
668.344
References:
Jähne, B., Heinz, G., & Dietrich, W. (1987). Measurement of the
diffusion coefficients of sparingly soluble gases in water. Journal
of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 92(C10), 10767–10776.
https://doi.org/10.1029/JC092iC10p10767
"""
from numpy import nanmedian
if nanmedian(temp_C) > 270:
raise ValueError("temperature is not in degC")
T = temp_C
a = +2116.8
b = -136.25
c = +4.7353
d = -0.092307
e = +0.0007555
Sc = a + b * T + c * T ** 2 + d * T ** 3 + e * T ** 4
return Sc
[docs]def k_Li86(wind_ms, temp_C):
"""
Calculates the gas transfer coeffcient for CO2 using the formulation
of Liss and Merlivat (1986)
Note:
This is an old parameterization and we recommend using updated
parameterisations that are calculated based on the wind product you
choose to use. We include this parameterisation based purely for
legacy purposes.
Args:
wind_ms (array): wind speed in m/s
temp_C (array): temperature in degrees C
Returns:
kw (array): gas transfer velocity (k600) in cm/hr
References:
Liss, P. S., & Merlivat, L. (1986). The Role of Air-Sea Exchange
in Geochemical Cycling (Vol. 1983, Issue June 1983).
D. Reidel Publishing Company.
"""
from numpy import zeros_like
U = wind_ms
T = temp_C
Sc = schmidt_number(T)
k = zeros_like(temp_C)
i1 = U <= 3.6
i2 = (U > 3.6) & (U < 13.0)
i3 = U >= 13.0
k[i1] = (0.17 * U[i1]) * (Sc[i1] / 600) ** (-2.0 / 3.0)
k[i2] = ((U[i2] - 3.4) * 2.8) * (600 / Sc[i2]) ** 0.5
k[i3] = ((U[i3] - 8.4) * 5.9) * (600 / Sc[i3]) ** 0.5
return k
[docs]@_add_xarray_attrs
def k_Wa92(wind_second_moment, temp_C):
"""
Calculates the gas transfer coeffcient for CO2 using the formulation
of Wanninkhof (1992)
Note:
This is an old parameterization and we recommend using updated
parameterisations that are calculated based on the wind product you
choose to use. We include this parameterisation based purely for
legacy purposes.
The gas transfer velocity is scaled from instantaneous wind speeds.
The study applies a correction to the scaling (0.39) based on instantaneous
wind speeds to lower it to 0.31. This correction is based on the variability
of wind.
.. math::
k_{660} = 0.31 \\cdot U^2
Args:
wind_second_moment (array): wind speed squared in m2/s2. Note that the
second moment should be calculated at the native resolution of the
wind to avoid losses of variability when taking the square product.
temp_C (array): temperature in degrees C
Returns:
kw (array): gas transfer velocity (k660) in cm/hr
References:
Wanninkhof, R. H. (1992). Relationship between wind speed and gas
exchange over the ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 97(C5),
7373. https://doi.org/10.1029/92JC00188
"""
U2 = wind_second_moment
Sc = schmidt_number(temp_C)
k = (0.31 * U2) * (660 / Sc) ** 0.5
return k
[docs]@_add_xarray_attrs
def k_Wa99(wind_ms, temp_C):
"""
Calculates the gas transfer coeffcient for CO2 using the formulation
of Wanninkhof and McGillis (1999)
The gas transfer velocity has been scaled for in-situ short term wind
products. Note that using this function for any other wind product is not
correct.
.. math::
k_{600} = 0.0283 \\cdot U^3
Args:
wind_ms (array): wind speed in m/s
temp_C (array): temperature in degrees C
Returns:
kw (array): gas transfer velocity (k600) in cm/hr
References:
Wanninkhof, R. H., & McGillis, W. R. (1999). A cubic relationship
between air-sea CO2 exchange and wind speed. Geophysical Research
Letters, 26(13), 1889–1892. https://doi.org/10.1029/1999GL900363
"""
U = wind_ms
Sc = schmidt_number(temp_C)
k = (0.0283 * U ** 3) * (600 / Sc) ** 0.5
return k
[docs]@_add_xarray_attrs
def k_Ni00(wind_ms, temp_C):
"""
Calculates the gas transfer coeffcient for CO2 using the formulation
of Nightingale et al (2000)
.. math::
k_{600} = 0.333 \\cdot U + 0.222 \\cdot U^2
Args:
wind_ms (array): wind speed in m/s
temp_C (array): temperature in degrees C
Returns:
kw (array): gas transfer velocity (k600) in cm/hr
References:
Nightingale, P. D., Malin, G., Law, C. S., Watson, A. J., Liss, P. S.,
Liddicoat, M. I., Boutin, J., & Upstill-Goddard, R. C. (2000). In
situ evaluation of air-sea gas exchange parameterizations using
novel conservative and volatile tracers. In Global Biogeochemical
Cycles (Vol. 14, Issue 1, p. 373). https://doi.org/10.1029/1999GB900091
"""
U = wind_ms
Sc = schmidt_number(temp_C)
k = (0.333 * U + 0.222 * U ** 2) * (600 / Sc) ** 0.5
return k
[docs]@_add_xarray_attrs
def k_Mc01(wind_ms, temp_C):
"""
Calculates the gas transfer coeffcient for CO2 using the formulation
of McGillis et al. (2001)
The gas transfer velocity has been scaled for in-situ short term wind
products. Note that using this function for any other wind product is not
correct.
.. math::
k_{660} = 3.3 + 0.026 \\cdot U^3
Args:
wind_ms (array): wind speed in m/s
temp_C (array): temperature in degrees C
Returns:
kw (array): gas transfer velocity (k660) in cm/hr
References:
McGillis, W. R., Edson, J. B., Ware, J. D., Dacey, J. W. H., Hare, J. E.,
Fairall, C. W., & Wanninkhof, R. H. (2001). Carbon dioxide flux
techniques performed during GasEx-98. Marine Chemistry, 75(4), 267–280.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4203(01)00042-1
"""
U = wind_ms
Sc = schmidt_number(temp_C)
k = 3.3 + (0.026 * U ** 3) * (660 / Sc) ** 0.5
return k
[docs]@_add_xarray_attrs
def k_Ho06(wind_second_moment, temp_C):
"""
Calculates the gas transfer coeffcient for CO2 using the formulation
of Ho et al. (2006)
The gas transfer velocity is for the QuickSCAT satellite wind product.
Note that using this function for any other wind product is stricktly
speaking not correct.
.. math::
k_{600} = 0.266 \\cdot U^2
The parameterization is based on the SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange (SAGE)
experiment.
Args:
wind_ms (array): wind speed in m/s
temp_C (array): temperature in degrees C
Returns:
kw (array): gas transfer velocity (k600) in cm/hr
References:
Ho, D. T., Law, C. S., Smith, M. J., Schlosser, P., Harvey, M., & Hill, P.
(2006). Measurements of air-sea gas exchange at high wind speeds in the Southern
Ocean: Implications for global parameterizations. Geophysical Research Letters,
33(16), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL026817
"""
U2 = wind_second_moment
Sc = schmidt_number(temp_C)
k = (0.266 * U2) * (600 / Sc) ** 0.5
return k
[docs]@_add_xarray_attrs
def k_Sw07(wind_second_moment, temp_C):
"""
Calculates the gas transfer coeffcient for CO2 using the formulation
Wanninkhof (1992) rescaled by Sweeny et al (2007)
The gas transfer velocity has been scaled for the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis 1
product. Note that using this function for any other wind product is not
correct.
.. math::
k_{660} = 0.27 \\cdot U^2
Args:
wind_second_moment (array): wind speed squared in m2/s2. Note that the
second moment should be calculated at the native resolution of the
wind to avoid losses of variability when taking the square product.
temp_C (array): temperature in degrees C
Returns:
kw (array): gas transfer velocity (k660) in cm/hr
References:
Sweeney, C., Gloor, E., Jacobson, A. R., Key, R. M., McKinley, G. A.,
Sarmiento, J. L., & Wanninkhof, R. H. (2007). Constraining global
air-sea gas exchange for CO2 with recent bomb 14C measurements.
Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 21(2). https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GB002784
"""
U2 = wind_second_moment
Sc = schmidt_number(temp_C)
k = (0.27 * U2) * (660 / Sc) ** 0.5
return k
[docs]@_add_xarray_attrs
def k_Wa09(wind_ms, temp_C):
"""
Calculates the gas transfer coeffcient for CO2 using the formulation
of Wanninkhof et al. (2009)
The gas transfer velocity has been scaled for the Cross-Calibrated Multi-
Platform (CCMP) Winds product. Note that using this function for any other
wind product is not correct.
.. math::
k_{660} = 3.0 + 0.1 \\cdot U + 0.064 \\cdot U^2 + 0.011 \\cdot U^3
Args:
wind_ms (array): wind speed in m/s
temp_C (array): temperature in degrees C
Returns:
kw (array): gas transfer velocity (k660) in cm/hr
References:
Wanninkhof, R. H., Asher, W. E., Ho, D. T., Sweeney, C., & McGillis,
W. R. (2009). Advances in Quantifying Air-Sea Gas Exchange and
Environmental Forcing*. Annual Review of Marine Science, 1(1),
213–244. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.marine.010908.163742
"""
U = wind_ms
Sc = schmidt_number(temp_C)
k = (3.0 + 0.1 * U + 0.064 * U ** 2 + 0.011 * U ** 3) * (660 / Sc) ** 0.5
return k
[docs]@_add_xarray_attrs
def k_Wa14(wind_second_moment, temp_C):
"""
Calculates the gas transfer coeffcient for CO2 using the formulation
of Wanninkhof et al. (2014)
The gas transfer velocity has been scaled for the Cross-Calibrated Multi-
Platform (CCMP) Winds product. Note that using this function for any other
wind product is not correct.
.. math::
k_{660} = 0.251 \\cdot U^2
Args:
wind_second_moment (array): wind speed squared in m2/s2. Note that the
second moment should be calculated at the native resolution of the
wind to avoid losses of variability when taking the square product.
temp_C (array): temperature in degrees C
Returns:
kw (array): gas transfer velocity (k660) in cm/hr
References:
Wanninkhof, R. H. (2014). Relationship between wind speed and gas
exchange over the ocean revisited. Limnology and Oceanography:
Methods, 12(JUN), 351–362. https://doi.org/10.4319/lom.2014.12.351
"""
U2 = wind_second_moment
Sc = schmidt_number(temp_C)
k = 0.251 * U2 * (660 / Sc) ** 0.5
return k
```